From Wikipedia, the miễn phí encyclopedia

From top left, clockwise: U.S. President Ronald Reagan is shot and injured by John Hinckley Jr.; the first case of làm giảm hệ miễn dịch cấp tiến began in United States; the Salvadoran Army kill 800–1,000 civilians in El Mozote village; NASA launches Space Shuttle Columbia; Pope John Paul II is shot and injured by Mehmet Ali Ağca; IBM launches its first microcomputer; seven prisoners from the Provisional Irish Republican Army and three from the Irish National Liberation Army starved themselves to tát death in the hunger strike; Prince Charles marries Lady Diana Spencer.
Millennium: 2nd millennium
  • 19th century
  • 20th century
  • 21st century
  • 1960s
  • 1970s
  • 1980s
  • 1990s
  • 2000s
  • 1978
  • 1979
  • 1980
  • 1981
  • 1982
  • 1983
  • 1984
1981 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1981
Ab urbe condita2734
Armenian calendar1430
Assyrian calendar6731
Baháʼí calendar137–138
Balinese saka calendar1902–1903
Bengali calendar1388
Berber calendar2931
British Regnal year29 Eliz. 2 – 30 Eliz. 2
Buddhist calendar2525
Burmese calendar1343
Byzantine calendar7489–7490
Chinese calendar庚申年 (Metal Monkey)
4677 or 4617
    — to —
辛酉年 (Metal Rooster)
4678 or 4618
Coptic calendar1697–1698
Discordian calendar3147
Ethiopian calendar1973–1974
Hebrew calendar5741–5742
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat2037–2038
 - Shaka Samvat1902–1903
 - Kali Yuga5081–5082
Holocene calendar11981
Igbo calendar981–982
Iranian calendar1359–1360
Islamic calendar1401–1402
Japanese calendarShōwa 56
Javanese calendar1913–1914
Juche calendar70
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4314
Minguo calendarROC 70
Nanakshahi calendar513
Thai solar calendar2524
Tibetan calendar阳金猴年
(male Iron-Monkey)
2107 or 1726 or 954
    — to —
(female Iron-Rooster)
2108 or 1727 or 955
Unix time347155200 – 378691199

Bạn đang xem: 1981

Xem thêm: định luật bảo toàn động lượng

Wikimedia Commons has truyền thông media related to tát 1981.

1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1981st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 981st year of the 2nd millennium, the 81st year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1980s decade.



  • January 1
    • Greece enters the European Economic Community, predecessor of the European Union.[1]
    • Palau becomes a self-governing territory.[2]
  • January 10 – Salvadoran Civil War: The FMLN launches its first major offensive, gaining control of most of Morazán and Chalatenango departments.[3]
  • January 15 – Pope John Paul II receives a delegation led by Polish Solidarity leader Lech Wałęsa at the Vatican.[4]
  • January trăng tròn – Iran releases the 52 Americans held for 444 days, minutes after Ronald Reagan is sworn in as the 40th President of the United States, ending the Iran hostage crisis.[5]
  • January 21 – The first DeLorean automobile, a stainless steel sports xế hộp with gull-wing doors, rolls off the production line in Dunmurry, Northern Ireland.
  • January 24 – An earthquake of 6.8 magnitude in Sichuan, Trung Quốc, kills 150 people. nhật bản suffers a less serious earthquake on the same day.[6]
  • January 25 – In South Africa the largest part of the town Laingsburg is swept away within minutes by one of the strongest floods ever experienced in the Great Karoo.
  • January 27 – The Indonesian passenger ship Tampomas II catches fire and capsizes in the Java Sea, killing 580 people.[7]


  • February 4 – Gro Harlem Brundtland becomes Prime Minister of Norway.[8]
  • February 8 – In Greece, trăng tròn fans of Olympiacos F.C. and 1 người hâm mộ of AEK Athens die, while 54 are injured, after a stampede at the Karaiskakis Stadium in Piraeus, possibly because Gate 7 does not open immediately after the kết thúc of the game.
  • February 9 – Polish Prime Minister Józef Pińkowski resigns, and is replaced by General Wojciech Jaruzelski.[9]
  • February 14 – Stardust fire: A fire at the Stardust nightclub in Artane, Dublin, Ireland in the early hours kills 48 people and injures 214.[10]
  • February 17–22 – Pope John Paul II visits the Philippines.
  • February 23 – 1981 Spanish coup d'état attempt ("23-F"): Antonio Tejero, with members of the Guardia Civil, enters the Spanish Congress of Deputies and stops the session where Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo is about to tát be named president of the government. The coup fails after being denounced by King Juan Carlos.[11]
  • February 24 – A powerful, 6.7 magnitude earthquake hits Athens, killing 22 people, injuring 400 people and destroying several buildings and 4,000 houses, mostly in Corinth and the nearby towns of Loutraki, Kiato and Xylokastro.


  • March 1 – 1981 Irish hunger strike: Bobby Sands, a Provisional Irish Republican Army thành viên, begins a hunger strike for political status at HM Prison Maze (Long Kesh) in Northern Ireland, dying on May 5, the first of 7 IRA and 3 INLA hunger strikers to tát die.
  • March 11 – Chilean military dictator Augusto Pinochet is sworn in as President of Chile for another 8-year term.
  • March 17 – In Italy the Propaganda Due Masonic lodge is discovered.
  • March 19 – Two or three workers are killed and 4 injured during a ground test of Space Shuttle Columbia at Kennedy Space Center in the United States.
  • March 29 – The first London Marathon starts, with 7,500 runners.
  • March 30 – Attempted assassination of Ronald Reagan: U.S. President Ronald Reagan is shot in the chest outside a Washington, D.C. khách sạn by John Hinckley, Jr.; 2 police officers and Press Secretary James Brady are also wounded.


  • April 4 – UK pop group Bucks Fizz's tuy vậy Making Your Mind Up wins the 1981 Eurovision Song Contest in Dublin, Republic of Ireland.
  • April 11 – 1981 Brixton riot: Rioters in south London, UK, throw petrol bombs, attack police and loot shops.[12]
  • April 12 – The Space Shuttle program: Space Shuttle Columbia with NASA astronauts John Young and Robert Crippen launches on the STS-1 mission, returning to tát Earth on April 14. It is the first time a crewed reusable spacecraft has returned from orbit.[13]
April 12: First Space Shuttle launch: Columbia, April 12, 1981.
  • April 15 – The first Coca-Cola bottling plant in Trung Quốc is opened.[14]
  • April 18 – A Minor League Baseball game between the Rochester Red Wings and the Pawtucket Red Sox at McCoy Stadium in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, becomes the longest professional baseball game in history: 8 hours and 25 minutes/33 innings (the 33rd inning is not played until June 23).
  • April 26 – French presidential election: A first-round runoff results between Valéry Giscard d'Estaing and François Mitterrand.


  • May – Daniel K. Ludwig abandons the Jari project in the Amazon basin.
  • May 1 – Pensions in Chile: The new Chilean pension system, based on private pension funds, begins.
  • May 4 – The European Law Students' Association (ELSA) was founded in Vienna by law students from Austria, West Germany, Poland and Hungary.
  • May 6 – A jury of architects and sculptors unanimously selects Maya Lin's design for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C. from 1,421 other entries.
  • May 13 – Pope John Paul II assassination attempt: Pope John Paul II is shot by Mehmet Ali Ağca, a Turkish gunman, as he enters St. Peter's Square in Vatican City to tát address a general audience. The Pope recovers.[15]
  • May 15 – A prison officer, 31-year-old Donna Payant, disappears at Green Haven Correctional Facility in Thành Phố New York. She is later found to tát have been murdered by convicted serial killer Lemuel Smith. It is the first time a female prison officer has been killed while on duty in the United States.[16]
  • May 21 – François Mitterrand becomes the first socialist President of the French Fifth Republic.
  • May 22 – Serial killer Peter Sutcliffe is found guilty and sentenced to tát life imprisonment on 13 counts of murder and 7 of attempted murder in England.
  • May 25 – In Riyadh, the Gulf Cooperation Council is created between Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.
  • May 26 – The Italian government resigns over its links to tát the fascist Masonic cell Propaganda Due.
  • May 30 – Bangladesh President Ziaur Rahman is assassinated in Chittagong.
  • May 31 – Burning of Jaffna library, one of the most violent examples of ethnic biblioclasm of the century.


  • June 5 – The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States report that 5 homosexual men in Los Angeles have a rare size of pneumonia seen only in patients with weakened immune systems, the first recognized cases of AIDS.
  • June 6 – Bihar train disaster: Seven coaches of an overcrowded passenger train fall off the tracks into the Bagmati River in Bihar, India, killing between 500 and 800.
  • June 7 – The Israeli Air Force destroys Iraq's Osirak nuclear reactor killing ten Iraqi troops and a French technician.
  • June 10 – Alfredo Rampi, a 6-year-old boy, falls into an artesian well in Vermicino, near Rome. After nearly three days of failed rescue attempts followed with bated breath from all over Italy, Alfredino dies inside the well, at a depth of 60 meters.
  • June 13 – At the Trooping the Colour ceremony in London, teenager Marcus Sarjeant fires 6 blank shots close to tát Queen Elizabeth II, startling her horse.[17][18]
  • June 18
    • The Organization of Eastern Caribbean States is founded.[19]
    • The Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk Stealth Fighter makes its first flight at Groom Lake (Area 51), Nevada.
  • June 22 – Iranian president Abolhassan Banisadr is deposed.
  • June 27
    • The first game of paintball is played, in Henniker, New Hampshire, United States.[20]
    • The E-mu Emulator sampler keyboard with floppy disk operation is unveiled at NAMM international Sound & Music Expo, Chicago. Production Model Serial Number 001 is issued to tát Stevie Wonder.[21]


  • July 1 – Wonderland murders: The Wonderland Gang of cocaine dealers is brutally murdered in Los Angeles.[22] Eddie Nash is suspected of involvement, but will never be convicted.[23]
  • July 3 – The Toxteth riots in Liverpool, England, start after a mob saves a youth from being arrested. Shortly afterward, the Chapeltown riots in Leeds start after increased racial tension.
  • July 7 – United States President Ronald Reagan nominates the first woman, Sandra Day O'Connor, to tát the Supreme Court of the United States.[24]
  • July 9 – Donkey Kong is released, marking the first Donkey Kong and Mario smash hit arcade game developed by Nintendo in nhật bản.
  • July 10
    • Mahathir bin Mohamad becomes the 4th Prime Minister of Malaysia.[25]
    • 1981 Handsworth riots in Birmingham begin, followed by further 1981 England riots in several urban areas including Liverpool and Leeds.
  • July 16–21 – England become the first team this century to tát win a cricket Test match after the follow-on when they beat nước Australia by 18 runs at Headingley cricket ground, Leeds, England.
  • July 17
    • Hyatt Regency walkway collapse: Two skywalks filled with people at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in Kansas City, Missouri, collapse into a crowded atrium lobby, killing 114.
    • Israeli aircraft bomb Beirut, destroying multi-story apartment blocks containing the offices of PLO associated groups, killing approximately 300 civilians and resulting in worldwide condemnation and a U.S. embargo on the export of aircraft to tát Israel.[26]
  • July 19 – The 1981 Springbok Tour commences in New Zealand, amid controversy over the tư vấn of apartheid.
  • July 21 – Panda Tohui is born in Chapultepec Zoo in Mexico City, the first panda to tát ever be born and survive in captivity outside of Trung Quốc.
  • July 29 – A worldwide television audience of over 750 million people watch the Wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer at St Paul's Cathedral in London, UK.[27]
  • July 30 – 1981 Polish hunger demonstrations: As many as 50,000 demonstrators, mostly women and children, take to tát the streets in Łódź to tát protest about food ration shortages in Communist Poland.[28]


  • August 1 – The first 24-hour đoạn Clip music channel MTV (Music Television) is launched in the United States and airs its first đoạn Clip, Video Killed the Radio Star by The Buggles.[29]
  • August 9 – 1981 Major League Baseball strike ends in the United States, and Major League Baseball resumes with the All-Star trò chơi in Cleveland's Municipal Stadium.[30]
  • August 12 – The original Model 5150 IBM PC (with a 4.77 MHz Hãng sản xuất Intel 8088 processor) is released in the United States at a base price of $1,565.[31]
  • August 19 – Gulf of Sidra incident: Libyan president Muammar Gaddafi sends two Sukhoi Su-22 fighter jets to tát intercept two U.S. Navy fighters over the Gulf of Sidra. The U.S. jets destroy the Libyan fighters.[32]
  • August 23 – South African troops attack SWAPO bases in Xangongo and Ongiva, Angola, during Operation Protea.[33]
  • August 24 – Mark David Chapman is sentenced to tát trăng tròn years to tát life in prison after pleading guilty to tát murdering John Lennon in Manhattan eight months earlier.
  • August 27 – North Korea fires a surface-to-air missile at a U.S. SR-71 Blackbird spy plane flying in South Korean and international airspace. The missile misses and the airplane is unharmed.[34]
  • August 30 – 1981 Iranian Prime Minister's office bombing: Eight people, including the country's president and prime minister, are killed when a briefcase, planted by People's Mujahedin of Iran, explodes in the building.[35]
  • August 31 – A bomb explodes at the United States Ramstein Air Base in West Germany, injuring trăng tròn people.


  • September – Little Miss Bossy, the first book in the Little Miss series (of the female versions of Mr. Men) is first published.
  • September 1 – Gregorio Conrado Álvarez is inaugurated as a military de facto President of Uruguay.[36]
  • September 4 – An explosion at a mine in Záluží, Czechoslovakia, kills 65 people.
  • September 7 – British plantation company, Guthrie was taken over by the Malaysian government after successfully purchasing shares to tát become the major shareholder. This is famously called the 'Dawn Raid attack'.[37]
  • September 10 – Picasso's painting Guernica is moved from Thành Phố New York to tát Madrid.
  • September 15
    • Our Lady of Akita in nhật bản cries for the last time, on the Feast of Our Lady of Sorrows.
    • The John Bull becomes the oldest operable steam locomotive in the world, at 150 years old, when it operates under its own power outside Washington, D.C.
  • September 17 – Ric Flair defeats Dusty Rhodes to tát win his first World Heavyweight Wrestling Championship in Kansas City.
  • September 18 – France's National Assembly votes to tát abolish Capital punishment in France.[38]
  • September 19 – Solidarity Day march, in tư vấn of organized labor, draws approximately 250,000 people in Washington, D.C.
  • September trăng tròn – The overcrowded ferry boat Sobral Santos II capsizes in the Amazon River, Óbidos, Brazil, killing at least 300 people.[39]
  • September 21 – Belize, formerly British Honduras, gains its independence from the United Kingdom.
  • September 25 – Sandra Day O'Connor takes her seat as the first female justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
  • September 26
    • The Boeing 767 airliner makes its first flight.[40]
    • The Sydney Tower opens to tát the public in nước Australia.
  • September 27 – TGV high-speed rail service between Paris and Lyon, France, begins.
  • September 27–29 – Iran–Iraq War: Iranian forces break the Siege of Abadan in Operation Samen-ol-A'emeh.[41]


  • October 5 – Raoul Wallenberg becomes a posthumously honorary citizen of the United States.
  • October 10 – The Ministry for Education of nhật bản issues the jōyō kanji.[42]
  • October 14 – Vice President Hosni Mubarak is elected President of Egypt, one week after the assassination of Anwar Sadat during a parade, by servicemen who belong to tát the Egyptian Islamic Jihad organization led by Khalid Islambouli and oppose his negotiations with Israel.[43]
  • October 16 – Gas explosions at a coal mine at Hokutan, Yūbari, Hokkaidō, nhật bản, killed 93 people.
  • October 21 – Andreas Papandreou becomes Prime Minister of Greece.[44]
  • October 22 – The founding congress of the Nepal Workers and Peasants Organization faction led by Hareram Sharma and D. P.. Singh begins.
  • October 27 – Soviet submarine S-363 runs aground outside the Karlskrona, Sweden, military base, leading to tát a minor international incident.[45]


November 1: Antigua and Barbuda.
  • November 1 – Antigua and Barbuda gain independence from the United Kingdom.[46]
  • November 9 – Slavery in Mauritania is abolished by Edict No. 81-234.[47]
  • November 12 – The Church of England General Synod votes to tát admit women to tát holy orders.
  • November 22 – The Edmonton Eskimos (14-1-1) barely stave off defeat and win a record 4th consecutive Grey Cup in the Canadian Football League, at the 69th Grey Cup at Montréal's Olympic Stadium defeating the Ottawa Rough Riders (5-11-0) 26–23 in the final three seconds; after being down 20–1 at halftime.[48]
  • November 23
    • Iran–Contra affair: U.S. President Ronald Reagan signs the top secret National Security Decision Directive 17 (NSDD-17), authorizing the Central Intelligence Agency to tát recruit and tư vấn Contra rebels in Nicaragua.
    • 1981 United Kingdom tornado outbreak, the largest recorded tornado outbreak in European history.[49]
  • November 25–26 – 1981 Seychelles coup d'état attempt: A group of mercenaries led by Mike Hoare take over Mahe airport. Most of them escape by a commandeered Air India passenger jet; six are later arrested.[50]


  • December 1 – An Inex-Adria Aviopromet McDonnell Douglas MD-80 strikes a mountain peak and crashes while approaching Ajaccio Airport in Corsica, killing all 180 people on board.
  • December 4 – South Africa grants Ciskei independence, not recognized outside South Africa.
  • December 7 – Rotary International charters the Rotary Club of Grand Baie, Mauritius.
  • December 8
    • The No. 21 Mine explosion in Whitwell, Tennessee kills 13.
    • Arthur Scargill becomes President-elect of the National Union of Mineworkers (Great Britain).
  • December 10 – During the Ministerial Session of the North Atlantic Council in Brussels, Spain signs the Protocol of Accession to tát NATO.
  • December 11
    • Boxing: Muhammad Ali loses to tát Trevor Berbick; this proves to tát be Ali's last-ever fight.
    • El Mozote massacre: In El Salvador, army units kill 900 civilians.
  • December 13 – Wojciech Jaruzelski declares martial law in Poland, to tát prevent the dismantling of the communist system by Solidarity.
  • December 15 – 1981 Iraqi embassy bombing in Beirut: An Islamic Dawa Party xế hộp bomb destroys the Iraqi Embassy in Lebanon, killing 61 people in one of the earliest significant postwar suicide attacks.
  • December 17 – American Brigadier General James L. Dozier is kidnapped in Verona by the Italian Red Brigades.
  • December trăng tròn – The Penlee lifeboat disaster: While attempting to tát rescue those on board the Union Star off the coast of South-West Cornwall (England), the lifeboat Solomon Browne is lost with all crew. Sixteen people in all are killed.[51]
  • December 28 – The first American test-tube baby, Elizabeth Jordan Carr, is born in Norfolk, Virginia.
  • December 31 – A coup d'état in Ghana removes President Hilla Limann's PNP government and replaces it with the PNDC led by Flight Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings.

Date unknown[edit]

  • January to tát March – Heavy snow causes many houses and buildings to tát collapse in northwestern Japan; 152 are killed.
  • Cuba suffers a major outbreak of dengue fever, with 344,203 cases.[52]
  • Use of crack cocaine, a smokeable size of the drug, first reported in the United States and Caribbean.[53]
  • Luxor AB presents the ABC 800 computer.
  • Polybius, an urban legend game, is said to tát have been released in Portland, Oregon; there is no evidence for its existence.
  • The State Council of the People's Republic of Trung Quốc lists the cities of Beijing, Hangzhou, Suzhou and Guilin as those where the protection of historical and cultural heritage, as well as natural scenery, should be treated as a priority project.
  • Pepsi enters Trung Quốc.[54]
  • China becomes the first country to tát ever reach a population of 1 billion around the kết thúc of 1981.[55]

Births and deaths[edit]

Nobel Prizes[edit]

  • Physics – Nicolaas Bloembergen, Arthur Leonard Schawlow, Kai Siegbahn
  • Chemistry – Kenichi Fukui, Roald Hoffmann
  • Medicine – Roger Wolcott Sperry, David H. Hubel, Torsten Wiesel
  • Literature – Elias Canetti
  • Peace – United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
  • Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences – James Tobin


  1. ^ Federal Trust for Education and Research (2003). Guide to tát the EU Institutions. I. B. Tauris. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-903403-09-9.
  2. ^ Economist Publications (1988). The World in Figures. G.K. Hall. p. 282. ISBN 978-0-8161-8954-0.
  3. ^ Angelika Schlunck (2000). Amnesty Versus Accountability: Third Party Intervention Dealing with Gross Human Rights Violations in Internal and International Conflicts. Berlin Verlag Arno Spitz GmbH. p. 91. ISBN 978-3-87061-894-0.
  4. ^ W. J. Twierdochlebow (1985). Solidarność: A Biblio-historiography of the Gdansk Strike and Birth of Solidarity Movement. Center for the Study of Opposition in Poland. p. 61.
  5. ^ ʻAlī Rāhnamā; Farhād Nuʻmānī (1990). The Secular Miracle: Religion, Politics, and Economic Policy in Iran. Zed Books. p. 311. ISBN 978-0-86232-938-9.
  6. ^ Scientific Event Alert Network (National Museum of Natural History (U.S.)) (1981). SEAN Bulletin. Scientific Event Alert Network. p. 14.
  7. ^ Mark S. Hoffman (1990). The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 1990. World Almanac. p. 541. ISBN 978-0-88687-559-6.
  8. ^ Christine Ingebritsen (2006). Scandinavia in World Politics. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-7425-0965-8.
  9. ^ Neal Ascherson (1982). The Book of Lech Wałęsa. Simon and Schuster. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-671-45684-9.
  10. ^ Neil Fetherstonhaugh; Tony McCullagh (2001). They Never Came Home: The Stardust Story. Merlin. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-903582-09-1.
  11. ^ Daily Report. West Europe. The Service. 1990. p. 30.
  12. ^ Childs, David (1995). Britain since 1939 : progress and decline. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan. p. 201. ISBN 9781349239672.
  13. ^ "'Yeeeow!' and 'Doggone!' Are Shouted on Beaches as Crowds Watch Liftoff". archive.nytimes.com.
  14. ^ "China loses its allure". The Economist. January 23, năm trước.
  15. ^ First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life. Institute on Religion and Public Life. 2003. p. 37.
  16. ^ William Moses Kunstler; Sheila Isenberg (1994). My Life as a Radical Lawyer. Carol Pub. p. 288. ISBN 978-1-55972-265-0.
  17. ^ "13 June 1981: Queen shot at by youth". Đài truyền hình BBC. June 13, 1981. Retrieved August 18, 2010.
  18. ^ Guard: I Saw Shots Being Fired At Queen, Sky News on-line, by Alastair Bruce, 11 June năm 2016, accessed 9 October năm 2016.
  19. ^ M. Leann Brown (1994). Developing Countries and Regional Economic Cooperation. Praeger. p. 152. ISBN 978-0-275-94960-0.
  20. ^ "Complete History of Paintball". Paintball Award. May 2021. Retrieved May 15, 2021.
  21. ^ "NAMM Exhibitor Manual-Summer 1981". namm.org. Retrieved June 16, 2018.
  22. ^ Lemons, Stephen (June 9, 2000). "Return to tát Wonderland". Salon.
  23. ^ Timnick, Lois (March 21, 1990). "Trial Begins for 2 in Grisly Laurel Canyon Murders of Mid-1981". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles.
  24. ^ Graya: A Magazine for Members of Gray's Inn. Gray's Inn. 1980. p. 51.
  25. ^ Shukor Omar (2003). The Malay Lost World: With Emphasis on Entrepreneurship. Anzagain. p. 36. ISBN 978-983-037-120-7.
  26. ^ "The Bombing of Beirut". Journal of Palestine Studies. 11 (1): 218–225. 1981. doi:10.1525/jps.1981.11.1.00p0366x.
  27. ^ "The Royal Wedding of HRH The Prince of Wales and the Lady Diana Spencer". Đài truyền hình BBC One. July 29, 1981. Archived from the original on August 3, 2019. Retrieved December 25, 2019.
  28. ^ Quarterly Economic Review of Poland, East Germany. Economist Intelligence Unit Limited. 1980. p. 14.
  29. ^ Jan-Patrick Stolpmann (May 2011). MTV: The (r)evolution & Impact Between 1981 - 1994. GRIN Verlag. p. 3. ISBN 978-3-640-91967-3.
  30. ^ Texas Business Review. Bureau of Business Research. 1981. p. 268.
  31. ^ Tompkins V, Bruccoli M, Baughman J, Layman R, Bondi V, Bargeron E, McConnell T, Tidd, J (1996). American Decades: 1980-1989. Gale Research. p. 583. ISBN 978-0-8103-8881-9.
  32. ^ John Norton Moore; Robert F. Turner (1995). Readings on International Law from the Naval War College Review, 1978-1994. Naval War College. p. 489.
  33. ^ Jacqueline Audrey Kalley; Elna Schoeman; Lydia Eve Andor (1999). Southern African Political History: A Chronology of Key Political Events from Independence to tát Mid-1997. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-313-30247-3.
  34. ^ "Missile is Fired by North Koreans at U.S. Spy Plane Near the DMZ". The Thành Phố New York Times. August 27, 1981.
  35. ^ United Press International (September 14, 1981). "Iranian Says Secretary to tát Premier Hid Fatal Bomb in Teheran Office". The Thành Phố New York Times. Retrieved March 14, 2017.
  36. ^ Arthur S Banks; William Overstreet; Thomas Muller (April 15, 2008). Political Handbook of the World 2008. CQ Press. p. 1446. ISBN 978-0-87289-528-7.
  37. ^ Shakila Yacob; Nicholas White (May 2011). "The 'Unfinished Business' of Malaysia's Decolonisation: The Origins of the Guthrie 'Dawn Raid'". Modern Asian Studies. 44 (5).
  38. ^ Council of Europe (2004). The Death Penalty: Beyond Abolition. Council of Europe Pub. p. 196. ISBN 9789287153333.
  39. ^ "300 Die as Amazon Boat Sinks". The Thành Phố New York Times. September trăng tròn, 1981. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
  40. ^ Michael John Haddrick Taylor (1982). Boeing. Jane's. p. 205. ISBN 978-0-7106-0420-0.
  41. ^ William F. Hickman (1982). Ravaged and Reborn: The Iranian Army, 1982 : a Staff Paper. Brookings Institution. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-8157-3611-0.
  42. ^ Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts: LLBA. Sociological Abstracts, Incorporated. 1985. p. 893.
  43. ^ Amnesty International Report. Amnesty International Publications. 1982. p. 320. ISBN 9780939994021.
  44. ^ Intelligence Digest. Intelligence International Limited. April 1984. p. 20.
  45. ^ Nigel West (2010). Historical Dictionary of Naval Intelligence. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 269. ISBN 978-0-8108-6760-4.
  46. ^ United States. Visa Office (1984). Report of the Visa Office. U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs. p. 43.
  47. ^ Edward H. Lawson; Mary Lou Bertucci (1996). Encyclopedia of Human Rights. Taylor & Francis. p. 990. ISBN 978-1-56032-362-4.
  48. ^ "HISTORY >> Grey Cup >> 1981 | CFL.ca | Official Site of the Canadian Football League". Archived from the original on August 19, 2013. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  49. ^ "European Severe Weather Database". www.eswd.eu.
  50. ^ Tickler, Peter (1987). The modern mercenary : dog of war, or soldier of honour. Wellingborough, Northamptonshire Thành Phố New York, N.Y: P.. Stephens Distributed by Sterling Pub. Co. p. 100. ISBN 9780850598124.
  51. ^ Disasters: A Bibliographic Guide. University of Bradford Disaster Planning and Limitation Unit. 1990. p. 122. ISBN 978-1-85143-049-9.
  52. ^ "Dengue Bulletin 23 - DHF Epidemics in Cuba, 1981 & 1997: Some Interesting Observations". Archived from the original on January 4, 2005. Retrieved May 26, 2005.
  53. ^ "DEA History Book, 1876–1990" (drug usage & enforcement), US Department of Justice, 1991, USDoJ.gov webpage: DoJ-DEA-History-1985-1990.
  54. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 11, 2013. Retrieved July 12, 2013.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  55. ^ "Chinese Population Hits 1 Billion".

External links[edit]

  • Protocol of Accession